Nutrition Interventions and Weight Loss
Diet intervention in weight management is different from extreme weight loss methods such as dieting and strenuous exercise. Instead, it adjusts the diet structure, chooses low GI (glycemic index) foods, and controls the total calories of the food. In this way, the calories burned are greater than the calories consumed, and you can quickly start breaking down fat, allowing the weight to drop. When using the dietary programs, is important to follow up with the body composition scale. It effectively comes to an end by using body composition analysis techniques.
Low Carbohydrate Diets (LCDs)
A short-term low-carbon diet can reduce weight and improve metabolism, but it will lack nutrients and adversely affect the body.
The general diet requires carbohydrate energy to account for 50% to 60% of the total energy. A low-carbon diet is usually ≤ 40%. The increase in fat energy ratio reaches more than 30%, and protein intake relatively increases.
Considering that a low-carb diet will reduce the intake of some nutrients, especially vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B1, folic acid, magnesium, calcium, iron, and iodine, Considering that a low-carb diet will reduce the intake of some nutrients, especially vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B1, folic acid, magnesium, calcium, iron, and iodine, it’s a dietary supplement.
One should always pay special attention to the fact that long-term (>1 year) use of a low-carbon diet is not recommended for the time being because the safety and effectiveness are currently unclear. At the same time, this program for long-term weight loss is not recommended for adolescents and children.
The ketogenic diet that has been popular in recent years is a special type of Very Low Carbohydrates Diet (VLCDs). It is necessary to reduce the carbohydrate ratio to less than 20% in practice.
Considering safety, making a ketogenic diet the first choice is not healthy. The recommendation is to perform short-term ketogenesis under the guidance of a clinical dietitian after trying other weight-loss diets that are ineffective. It is necessary to monitor changes in blood ketones, liver and kidney function, body composition and pay close attention to blood lipid levels.
Time-restricted Feeding (TRF)
Suitable for short-term use, but the long-term effect is uncertain.
It is a kind of intermittent eating, which mainly restricts eating every day. It is an emerging dietary intervention that is copied from the fasting behaviors observed in different cultures of the world. There are commonly three restrictions on eating 4, 6, and 8 hours. It is safe for almost all groups, whether adolescents, adults, or children. It’s famous to work by increasing the basic metabolic markers and improving the body’s fat-melting rate or energy expenditure rate. This program is not for people who have chronic diseases.
For example, the 8-hour limit requires you to normally eat within 8 hours and fast for the remaining 16 hours.
While reducing body weight, the results show that it also reduces lean body mass (beneficial body weight), and the long-term effect needs an evaluation.
Meal Replacement Food for Weight Loss
Although it is convenient and practical, it is recommended as an auxiliary method, and it is not recommended for long-term use.
Meal replacement is currently one of the most commonly used programs in commercial weight loss. However, meal replacement products themselves are just a “tool” in the weight loss process and cannot be used as the only means of weight loss. Its advantage is that it provides precise energy control, a certain degree of satiety, etc. It allows you to see a specific effect in the early stage of weight loss and enhances self-confidence in the weight loss process. However, many people lose weight when eating meal replacements. However, their weight rebounds back once they return to their regular diet. The fundamental reason is that scientific eating habits have not yet been developed.
It is always recommended to consult a nutritionist in advance if someone plans to lose weight by eating meal replacements. It is crucial to develop an effective weight loss plan and use meal replacements as an auxiliary weight loss. At the same time, friends who eat meal replacements should combine multivitamin and mineral supplements to ensure adequate nutrition during weight loss.
High Protein Diet
Using this weight loss program is more friendly for friends who have a large base and are prone to hunger. However, physicians should pay attention to renal function for long-term use and monitor it regularly.
Daily protein intake exceeds 20% of total energy, but not more than 30%; or 1.5 grams per kilogram of body weight per day, but not more than 2 grams/(kg·day). So, for example, if your target weight is 60 kg, the daily protein intake is 60×1.5=90 grams, and not more than 60×2=120 grams.
High-protein diets work by increasing the muscle mass or the body’s lean body mass. It makes the body expend more energy for the muscle cells because they need the energy to work. When the diet is high in protein but restricted in fat, the muscles obtain energy from the underlying fatty tissues, causing the underneath fat to burn. It can significantly reduce weight and waist circumference compared with conventional protein diets. Moreover, high-protein foods can increase satiety and reduce hunger. However, long-term use of high-protein diets requires strengthened monitoring of kidney function
Low GI Diet
It is friendly for people with mild obesity. However, it is better to superimpose a low GI diet based on a restricted-energy diet.
The primary way is to replace high-GI foods with low-GI foods with relatively low energy and high dietary fiber in the daily diet.
Not only can it increase satiety and reduce total energy intake, but it can also reduce peak blood glucose levels after meals, reduce blood glucose fluctuations, and improve insulin resistance. In addition, compared with the high-GI or low-fat diet, the low-GI diet’s weight, BMI, and total fat content decreased more significantly.
Intermittent energy Restriction (IER)
It needs to be carried out under the guidance of a nutritionist to achieve effective weight loss.
The famous light fasting now refers to the diet mode of fasting for a specified period according to a particular rule or giving a limited energy intake. The diet restriction here is on the reduced food intake overall but without incurring any signs of malnutrition in the body. The person is encouraged to take small portions of all types of nutrients. It is important to include both macronutrients and micronutrients to prevent deficiencies and stay healthy. The only important point that should be taken care of is that, the lesser the quantity, the better the diet program.
Examples include the alternate-day fasting method (fasting, in turn, every 24 hours), 4:3 or 5:2 fasting method (continuous/non-continuous, fasting for 2 to 3 days a week), etc. Note that if you are entirely fasting, it is prone to the risk of hypoglycemia. It is recommended that you perform a gentle light fasting program under the guidance of a nutritionist. Diabetic patients can also use it, but pay attention to monitoring the hypoglycemia risk and adjusting the medication in time.
Calorie Restrict Diet (CRD)
The most basic and classic plan is suitable for many people and has high safety. It can be used as the first choice for weight loss.
To put it simply, eat less. Reduce energy intake by 500-1000 kcal per day based on target energy intake. It is recommended to set it at 1200-1400 kcal/day for men and 1000-1200 kcal/day for women.
In other words, the daily caloric intake should not be less than 1,200 kcal for men and 1,000 kcal for women. For most people, you can try to reduce 500 kcal per day, which is safe and easy to implement, and you can eat about 1/3 less per meal. In the diet, appropriately increase the proportion of soybeans, soy products, and dairy products. Soy protein can reduce body fat percentage, total serum cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, while dairy products can reduce body weight and body fat content.
The Mediterranean diet is a friendly weight loss program for people with underlying diseases. This is generally a diet that has no fixed restrictions and the person attempting to follow this diet can cut down calories in any healthy way possible. It can effectively reduce the weight of overweight/obese patients, patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and postpartum women.
It is characterized by plant-based foods, including whole grains, beans, vegetables, fruits, nuts, etc. Other foods used are fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, which are appropriate. Red meat and its products are used in a small portion; edible oil is mainly olive oil; moderate amount Drink red wine.
Because of the unrestricted way of dieting, the person might sometimes end up gaining weight than losing it. For this purpose, it is important to take care of the iron portions that are consumed and lessen the amount of olive oil consumption.
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)
It is suitable for daily healthy eating patterns, and not during the weight-loss period. This dietary model develops from the large-scale hypertension prevention and treatment program in the United States. It can not only lower blood pressure but also lose weight and fat. The body fat scales can be measured by analyzing the body fat percentage through an effective 3D body scanner like Visbody.
How to do it, remember the following seven key points——
- Eat a lot of vegetables, no less than one catty per day. In it, dark-colored vegetables account for 1/2, and fruits should not be less than half a catty per day. Vegetables and fruits are good sources of potassium. Potassium can lower blood pressure and promote sodium. discharge;
- Eat low-fat dairy products, no less than 300 grams per day, and choose sugar-free yogurt;
- Appropriate intake of miscellaneous grains, which are also rich in potassium, preferably accounts for 1/3 to 1/2 of all staple foods. Choose whole grains, potatoes, and various beans;
- For meat; Poultry and fish should be preferred
- Choose unsalted nuts, a small handful a day;
- Eat fewer sweets, red meat, fatty meat, and animal offal;
- Limit sodium within 5 grams of salt.
I recommend consulting a nutritionist in advance to choose a suitable diet plan for you. Besides pay attention to changes in your body composition through effective strategies like Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. It will be the first step for body management. Finally, good Lifestyle and exercise habits will also help a lot!